Las redes de cooperación como modelo organizativo y funcional para la I+D
Dossier : Networks for international cooperation
La cooperación internacional se ha incorporado progresivamente en los procesos de generación de conocimientos, desarrollo de tecnologías y de innovación, hasta convertirse actualmente en un componente intrínseco de estos procesos. El impacto de la dimensión internacional puede apreciarse analizando multitud de indicadores, desde los bibliométricos hasta los relacionados con las alianzas estratégicas de las empresas (Child y Faulkner, 1998; Zander, 1999; Gómez et al., 1999).International cooperation has progressively been permeating all knowledge generation, technology development and innovation processes, to the extent that it has become a given component within them. The great impact of internationalization can be duly appreciated by analyzing a number of indicators ranging from bibliometric values to those related to strategic alliances among companies. The expanding role of international cooperation in scientific and technological development as well as in corporate and institutional internationalization has acted as a catalyst for profound changes and models for cooperation, their implementation methods and instruments. Among such instruments, cooperation networks have emerged powerfully throughout the last ten years and – being remarkably versatile and efficient- have been established as a mainstream instrument, highly valued by both promotion agents and actors of international cooperation. Recent progress in the ways of conceptualizing and in cooperation networks’ functions leads to the conclusion that such networks not only constitute instruments for cooperation but are increasingly perceived and applied as organizing models for institutional strengthening, implementation of national systems of innovation and their internationalization.